A samurai was typically named by combining one kanji from his father or grandfather and one new kanji. Samurai usually used only a small part of their total name.
For example, the full name of Oda Nobunaga could be "Oda Kazusanosuke Saburo Nobunaga" ?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?,, in which "Oda" is a clan or family name, "Kazusanosuke" is a title of vice governor of Kazusa province, "Saburo" is a formal nickname yobina, and "Nobunaga" is an adult name nanori given at genpuku, the coming of age ceremony. A man has been addressed by his family name and his title, or with his yobina if he didn't have a title. but, the nanori was a private name that may be used by only a not many, as well as the Emperor.
Samurai could decide their own nanori, and usually changed their names to reflect their allegiances.
Samurai had arranged marriages, which were arranged by a go between of the same or higher rank. While for those samurai in the upper ranks this was a need as most had not many opportunities to meet women, this was a formality for lower ranked samurai. Most samurai married women from a samurai family, but for lower ranked samurai, marriages with commoners were allowed. In these marriages a dowry was brought by the woman and has been used to set up the couple's new household.
A samurai could take concubines but their backgrounds were checked by higher ranked samurai. In many cases, taking a concubine was akin to a marriage. Kidnapping a concubine, though common in fiction, could have been shameful, if not criminal. If the concubine was a commoner, a messenger was sent with betrothal money or a note for exemption of tax to ask for her parents' acceptance. although the woman could not be a legal wife, a situation usually considered a demotion, many wealthy merchants thought that being the concubine of a samurai was superior to being the legal wife of a commoner. When a merchant's daughter married a samurai, her family's money erased the samurai's debts, and the samurai's social position improved the standing of the merchant family. If a samurai's commoner concubine gave birth to a son, the son could inherit his father's social position.
A samurai could divorce his wife for a range of reasons with approval from a superior, but divorce was, while not completely struck me, a rare event. A wife's failing to produce a son was because for divorce, but adoption of a male heir has been considered an satisfactory alternative to divorce. A samurai could divorce for personal reasons, if he simply didn't like his wife, but this was usually evaded as it could embarrass the person who had arranged the marriage. A woman could also arrange a divorce, though it could usually take the form of the samurai divorcing her. After a divorce samurai had to return the betrothal money, which frequently prevented divorces.
The English sailor and adventurer William Adams 15641620 was the 1st Westerner to get the dignity of samurai. The Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu presented him with two swords representing the authority of a samurai, and decreed that William Adams the sailor was dead and that Anjin Miura ?,?,?,?,, a samurai, was born. Adams also received the title of hatamoto bannerman, a high prestige position as a direct retainer in the Shogun's court. He has been provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the Emperor has given me a living" Letters , and he has been granted a fief in Hemi ?,?, inside the boundaries of present day Yokosuka City, "with eighty or ninety husbandmen, that be my slaves or servants" Letters. His estate has been valued at 250 koku. He wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery", Letters by which he meant the disaster ridden voyage that firstly brought him to Japan.
Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn 1556?1623?, a Dutch colleague of Adams' on their ill fated voyage to Japan in the ship De Liefde, was given alike privileges by Tokugawa Ieyasu. It seems Joosten became a samurai and was given a residence inside Ieyasu's castle at Edo. Today, this area at the east exit of Tokyo Station is called Yaesu ?,?,?,. Yaesu is a corruption of the Dutchman's Japanese name, Yayousu ?,?,?,. Also in common with Adam's, Joostens was given a Red Seal Ship ?,?,?, allowing him to trade between Japan and Indo China. On a return journey from Batavia Joosten drowned after his ship ran aground.